Exclusive (Adar Press) – The popularity of Muslim Brotherhood (MB) was at its lowest level before the start of the Syrian crisis, MB followed the civil Islam , it was active in the cities but not effective in rural areas , the group adopted a pan-Arab Islamic thought that did not address the Syrian mosaic


Death penalty, which has been pursuing members of the group , the life of luxury that was experienced by the group's leaders outside the country , the group management by elderly staff and not giving the opportunity for young people , all of that had contributed to the weakening of the mass support of the group in addition to the internal conflict between hard-liners represented by Hama members and moderate trend represented by Aleppo members and the formation of Syria Rescue Front  in partnership with Abdel Halim Khaddam led to the termination of the group's public support at home and even abroad .

 

With the arrival of Bashar al-Assad to power in 2000, a significant change occurred in the political line taken by the group. The group began tracking more moderate politics, in 2004 the group joined Damascus Declaration and reduced its demands to the level of demanding some reforms in Syria, and in 2006, it established with the Syrian vice-president, who resorted to France, Syria Rescue Front.  .


After 2008, the group began to participate in the indirect negotiations mediated by Turkey, with Assad regime and reduced its demands to the level of asking to return to Syria.
In 2010, when Hama’s Riyad AlShiqfeh was elected as the general leader of the group, Aleppo’s Ali Sader Bayanoni moved away from the group and the group began moving toward internal division. This internal crisis in the group continued to the end of 2011.


Despite the size of the losses suffered by the group inside Syria, it managed to build close ties with the bureaucracy of Arab and Western countries and Turkey. When demonstrations began in Syria in March 2011, the group headed towards media monopoly and convinced the world that it is the power that runs the protests at home. It has succeeded in doing so through the support that was provided by Turkey and Qatar to the extent that a lot of Arab and western media institutions did not publish any images certified by the group.


Also, through the Turkish and Qatari support, the group was able to put its hand on the Syrian opposition in exile. The group collected the Syrian opposition in exile in Istanbul and announced the establishment of the Syrian National Council in October 2011.


The group aimed to convince the public that it is managing protests in Syria, but some cities such as Aleppo and Damascus when stayed outside the framework of the protests and demonstrations spread in the countryside, this has contributed to the weakening of the group image that it wanted to promote.


When the protests began moving towards armament and weapons, the group could, through Turkish and Qatari support, put its hand on arms shipments deals that were heading to Syria. It also managed to put its hand on the opposition fund abroad. In this way, it managed to take control of some of the armed groups. However, the spread of arms in the countryside weakened the capability of the group to extend its influence. The group control of armed groups was linked to arms and money deals that came to the interior.

 

Relationships disintegrated once money and arms were denied in addition to the hostility existing against the group by the Wahhabis and Salafis.


It is believed that the Islamic Farouk battalion is one of the armed groups associated with the group, but their relationship disintegrated, despite the spread of the belief that Syria Liberation Front is linked to the group, That front, after it secured the money and arms by the group, disintegrated its relations with the group because of its relations with the Salafi ideology.


The group managed to form armed groups under the name of "shields" in the northern regions. However, these shields could not protect themselves in the face of the spread of extremist ideology. The sources of arms and money to the extremist bodies are more powerful than sources that the group depends on.

 

 

“Second part of a study on Islamic organizations in Syria”
Exclusive (Adar Press) prepared by: Barzan Isso